The Egalitarianism Project has been made possible through an Advanced Grant given to professor Bruce Kapferer by the European Research Council (ERC). The ERC Advanced Grants is given to exceptional established research leaders in order to enable them to pursue ground-breaking, high-risk projects, which open new directions in their respective research fields or other domains ( The project has a five year duration.

The host institution is the University of Bergen ( ) and its subsidiary, the Department of Social Anthropology ( where professor Kapferer has worked for years.

The Project

The ERC-funded Egalitarianism Project hosted by the University of Bergen aims at a multi-dimensional critical approach to the issue of Egalitarianism. The concept of Egalitarianism is extraordinarily broad, as is the no less nebulous ideal of equality, having virtually ontological value in modern Euro-American thought, increasingly so globally.

While Egalitarianism is conventionally associated with Equality and its opposite Inequality, this Project takes Egalitarianism as an expansive term including going beyond these relatively more reductive terms.
These, nonetheless, but especially that of Egalitarianism, are  open to a continually expanding fan of meaning establishing the horizons of a great variety of often competing discourses in the philosophies and numerous more grounded domains of everyday  practice. Egalitarianism is often virtually synonymous with other ideas, such as advancement and progress.  It is quite explicitly the drive behind or the ideological legitimation for the impetus to dynamics of socio-economic and cultural change as well as myriad social and political criticisms and protest. 


The very breadth, virtually all-encompassing, often totalizing and occasionally totalitarian force of the egalitarian idea demands its contextualization and deconstruction which are general aims of the Project. A major direction of the research envisaged here is, then, to open Egalitarianism, as it may have achieved much of its meaning in Euro-American historical contexts, to the potentials of other contexts. These, if in one way or another embraced by egalitarian ideologies or subject to the effects in globalizing realities, may expose or bring to the fore egalitarian/inegalitarian effects and possibilities.

Further, an objective of the research is to grasp egalitarian potentials (e.g. the potential for participation in socio-political action) in forms of life that might not ordinarily be conceived (from a Euro-American standpoint) to be egalitarian. The idea here is to open the concept of Egalitarianism and perhaps to expand it through the consideration of other forms of socio-cultural and politico-economic conceptions and practice, thus challenging Euro-American frames of understanding and “ownership” of egalitarian concepts. Here is stressed an approach to Egalitarianism as a broad concept not to be reduced to the concept of equality and further, if possible, de-linked from largely Euro-American connotations or their over-determination.

As a beginning strategy Egalitarianism is initially approached in the Project as that which opposes or which breaks open all that which can be conceptualized as confining, oppressive, repressive or restrictive in the cultures (or values) and socio-political orders and structures which human beings institute and live.

The Advisory Board

The Advisory Board of the project is composed broadly by highly experienced individuals in their respective fields.

Rohan Bastin Deakin University Australia

Annelin Eriksen, University of Bergen and project leader at GENPENT

Jonathan Friedman, University of San Diego

Sigmund Grønmo (head of ethics/ex officio) University of Bergen

Ørnulf Gulbrandsen University of Bergen

Angela Hobart University College London and director of Centro Incontri Umani

Martin Holbraad University College London and project leader of CARP

Pavla Jezkova University of Bergen

Don Kalb Central European University

Ståle Knudsen University of Bergen

Harry Rothman

Sundar Sarukkai National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore, India

Thorvald Sirnes University of Bergen

Olaf Smedal University of Bergen

Dinesan Vadakkiniyil

The Researchers


Bruce Kapferer

Professor / Project Leader

Phone: +47 55 58 92 47
Visiting address: Department of Social Anthropology,
University of Bergen, Fosswinckelsgt. 6.


Bruce Kapferer is a social anthropologist and the Director of the Egalitarianism project. He has worked extensively in Australia, Sri Lanka, India, South Africa and Zambia. His research interests include ritual and symbolic action, comparative state formation, urbanization, ethnicity and violence, theoretical issues in anthropology and philosophy. Kapferer is the author of a number of books, among them 2001 and Counting: Kubrick, Nietzsche, and Anthropology (2014, Prickly Paradigm Press), Legends of People, Myths of States: Violence, Intolerance, and Political Culture in Sri Lanka and Australia (2011, Berghahn Books and 2008, Smithsonian) and The Feast of the Sorcerer: Practices of Consciousness and Power (1997, University of Chicago Press).


Knut Mikjel Rio


Phone: +47 55 58 31 12
Cell phone:
Visiting address: University Museum of Bergen,
Haakon Sheteligespl. 10.


Knut Rio is a social anthropologist and has since 1994 regularly conducted anthropological fieldwork in Vanuatu, on the island of Ambrym and in the capital of Port Vila. In connection with making a documentary film and an exhibition about Norwegian interests in colonial resource extraction in the Pacific and Africa, he has also done archive studies at the University of Hawai’i and fieldwork in Kaua’i Island of Hawai’i. In the main part of Rio’s anthropological research he is concerned with the production of food, technologies of increase and ritual circumstances of producing yams and other crops in Vanuatu. More recently he has turned his attention to witchcraft and has been writing about witchcraft in relation to sacrifice, divination and modern law. Knut Rio’s work on social ontology, production, ceremonial exchange, witchcraft and art in Vanuatu has resulted in many journal articles and in the monograph The Power of Perspective: Social Ontology and Agency on Ambrym Island, Vanuatu (2007). He has also co-edited Hierarchy: Persistence and Transformation in Social formations (with Olaf Smedal, 2009), Made in Oceania. Social Movements, Cultural Heritage and the State in the Pacific (with Edvard Hviding, 2011), and The Arts of Government: Crime, Christianity and Policing in Melanesia (with Andrew Lattas, 2011).


Bjørn Enge Bertelsen

Associate Professor

Phone: +47 55 58 93 22
Cell phone: +47 411 03 883
Visiting address: Department of Social Anthropology,
University of Bergen, Fosswinckelsgt. 6.


Bjørn Enge Bertelsen is a social anthropologist and works mainly on Southern Africa and Mozambique. His research interests include the issues of violence, state, memory and tradition within political anthropology. He has co-edited two books, Navigating Colonial Orders: Norwegian Entrepreneurship in Africa and Oceania (2014, with Kirsten Alsaker Kjerland. New York: Berghahn Books) and Crisis of the State: War and Social Upheaval (2009, with Bruce Kapferer. New York: Berghahn Books). He has also published a number of book chapters and articles in peer-reviewed journals.


Theodoros Rakopoulos

Associate Professor University of Oslo/affiliate researcher

Cell phone:
Visiting address: Department of Social Anthropology,
University of Bergen, Fosswinckelsgt. 6.


Theodoros Rakopoulos is a social anthropologist with a PhD from Goldsmiths.

His research interests include cooperatives, the dialectics between ‘community’ and economy, and the social arrangements of land reform and food activism. He has carried out fieldwork on rural anti-mafia cooperatives in Sicily (2008-9) focusing on land restitution, neighbourliness and labour relations, and on the anti-middleman movement of food distribution side-lining market brokers during the Greek crisis (2013-ongoing). His work examines the ideologised notion of ‘community’ and explores social relations in and around cooperatives, where members are entangled in, as well as the neighbourhood of apparent ‘opposites’ (as per mafia/antimafia). Recently he has problematised the idea of ‘exception’ and ’emergency’ to tackle the Greek crisis and explored facets of a double-movement against austerity, focusing on unpacking a native concept: ‘solidarity economy’. Before joining the Department at Bergen, Theo was a post-doctoral fellow at the Human Economy programme (University of Pretoria). Rakopoulos has published a number of peer-reviewed articles and book chapters, and is currently completing a monograph on “Antimafia Cooperatives”. Future projects include exploring the relationship of anthropological and fictional writing.


Dinesan Vadakkiniyil

Post-Doctor/Coordinator Manipal group

Cell phone: ++91 9446338809


Dinesan Vadakkiniyil is currently working as Assistant Professor of History at the Government Brennen College, coming under Kannur University, Kerala, India. He is trained in both History and Anthropology and has received his PhD from the Department of Social Anthropology, University of Bergen.  He has recently completed major research on “Customary Service to Paid Labour” funded by Indian Council for Social Science Research, New Delhi. University Grants Commission, New Delhi, has granted him a Postdoctoral Research Award for conducting research on forms of inequality and forces of challenges in contemporary Kerala. He has published books and articles on transformation of kinship structure in Kerala, socio-political dynamics of teyyam ritual, and effects of globalization on Kerala. His research interests include questions of inequality, dalit studies, forms of power structure, and dynamics of ritual.


Alessandro Zagato


Cell phone:0052-1-2222076322 (provisional)
Visiting address: Department of Social Anthropology,
University of Bergen, Fosswinckelsgt. 6.


Alessandro Zagato holds a PhD in sociology from the National University of Ireland Maynooth and has an international and cross-disciplinary research background. Prior to joining the University of Bergen, Alessandro was a fellow at the Institute of Humanities and Social Sciences “Alfonso Vélez Pliego” in Puebla, Mexico, where he developed a research project on the egalitarian politics of autonomous indigenous organisations and social movements in the states of Guerrero and Chiapas. His doctoral thesis: “Community Development in Dublin. Political Subjectivity and State Cooption” investigated the historical evolution of the politics of Dublin’s Community Development. Alessandro has published articles in English, Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese, and his work has been presented at international congresses and conferences.


Jacob Hjortsberg

PhD student


I’m doing my PhD as part of the Egalitarianism project. The focus of my research is architecture and urban planning in Singapore and China. Broadly, what interests me is the role that Singaporean architecture firms play in the urbanization of China. I’m interested in Singapore as a laboratory for experimenting with new forms of “smart” or “green” urban planning- what is sometimes called the “future city” – models that are then exported to China. Specifically, I want to look at urban planning as a particular response to the environmental crisis – as crisis management from above. Some of my research questions include: How do architects and city planners, working in elite milieus and responding to elite interests, think about their own role in bringing about a substantial future, for whom is this future planned; and what are the conditions of possibility (real or imaginary) of this future?


Maria Dyveke Styve

PhD student


Maria Dyveke Styve holds a Master´s degree in Development Studies from London School of Economics. Her research interests include World Systems theory, Fanonian revolutionary thought and contemporary ideas of alterative economic systems. Her project looks at the historical and current connections between the finance sector in London and the mining industry in South Africa. Her aim is to understand some of the continuities and discontinuities of economic, social and political structures that were influenced by the way that the mining industry was set up in the 1870s, and how radical demands for redistribution today have to be understood within a long-term historical context.”


Axel Rudi

PhD student


Axel Rudi holds an M.A. in Social Science from the University of Chicago. His research interests include social movements, horizontalism, anarchism and prefigurative politics. Rudi has carried out fieldwork with an anarchist organization in Chicago affiliated with an international network. His studies showed how processes of ideological negotiation become institutionalized in ways that allow for both consensus and dissent, facilitating productive cooperation among members and non-members. Rudi is interested in how members of horizontal social movement organizations coordinate, develop and maintain egalitarian relations without replicating hierarchical structures, and in the implications of different organizational processes for subaltern ontologies.


Mari Hanssen Korsbrekke

PhD student

Cell phone:


Mari holds a Master’s Degree in Social Anthropology from the University of Bergen, Norway. Mari has previously carried out fieldwork in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Here she explored how groups and individuals would utilize community events, especially  parades, to communicate  and temporarily transform the struggles caused by the devastating natural disaster of Hurricane Katrina (2005).

For her PhD project she is interested in social and economic life in intentional communities, and is exploring sharing as an egalitarian ideal for the members of these communities; to better understand why and how they have chosen to live in the periphery of the state. She is also concerned with visions of the future, membership processes as well as commodity production and egalitarian business models.

Her interests include Marxist  and anarchistic  social formations and ideologies, structures of violence and crime, egalitarian forms and processes, street,-masquerade and parade politics, ideas of liminality and communitas, utopianism, intentional communities and contested landscapes.


Rolf Scott

Doctor / Researcher Technologies and web editor

Cell phone: + 47 40046685


Rolf Scott is on the project researching globally orientated technologies, and how these have and may change the life of the globally orientated individual.

His former research has largely focused on investigating and analyzing the emergence of global space inherent in the global grid of latitude and longitude. Scott’s doctoral thesis (February 2016) is titled “The Global Self; Constituting the Self as a Point in a Grid-Based Global World”.

The thesis investigates how the individual became formed as a value in it self from the times of St Augustin to the present. The basic drive came by how Augustin defined the individual (soul) as a point-sphere whose goal was to transform towards God, defined as a point-sphere. The thesis presents how this shaped the individual pragmatically, ultimately (re)introduction the Global-Grid of latitude and longitude in Florence in 1400. The Global-Grid, placed the individual as the cosmological center of a point and grid based, measurable and standardised world and cosmos. The main hypothesis is thereby that the self as a point-sphere – and the global, are two sides of a dyadic, transforming imminent self, applicable to all human beings (in other words the collective individual).

This thesis includes ways in which the positioning, individualising and spatial qualities of the geometrical system of latitude and longitude can be seen as a shared egalitarian technology of the self. The global grid has expanded the spatial reach of the individual in indefinite ways and in a highly positional, organised and homogenous manner, while spawning a whole range of other technologies including the Internet of today. As such the global grid has influenced tremendously the life individuals and groups locally and globally in the past and present.

Scott has gathered an extensive experience over many years investigating issues centred around the individualistic individual and the global. Scott’s empirical studies include having investigated maybe the most globally orientated, albeit highly Western and Protestant influenced practice of Western Yacht people who sail around the world (4 years) (Scott 2002*). Scott has further worked on the revitalisation of Polynesian Navigation and Voyaging in Hawaii, which is a highly global practice (7 months). He has also worked as a documentary fim maker for many years (1996 to present), and has theoretically focused on how the medium may be seen as an intricate aspect of global space. Scott has as a film producer, filmed and directed a whole range of ethnographic films from different parts of the world including the Salomon Islands, Samoa, Hawaii, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Russia, the USA, and Norway. He has also done research on low status “drug addicts” in Bergen, Norway (3 years), which he defines as a highly individualised activity. Individuals defined and stigmatised as “drug-addicts” work on gaining meaning and self worth as a marginalised subgroup situated in the hierarchically lowest existence of a bourgeois and egalitarianism inspired Norwegian consensus society.

Cruising the World as a Western Sea Nomad (233 pages). Hovedfags thesis. University of Bergen. Norway.

ornulf gulbrandsen_medium_2010

Ørnulf Gulbrandsen

Professor Emeritus and affiliated researcher

Phone: +47 55 58 92 71
Cell phone: +47 481 62 680
Visiting address: Department of Social Anthropology,
University of Bergen, Fosswinckelsgt. 6.


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Ruy Jesus Llera Blanes

Post doctor and affiliate researcher

Cell phone:
Visiting address: Department of Social Anthropology,
University of Bergen, Fosswinckelsgt. 6.


Michelle MacCarthy

Post doctor and affiliate researcher

Cell phone:
Visiting address: Department of Social Anthropology,
University of Bergen, Fosswinckelsgt. 6.


Alena Koslerova

PhDr. Faculty advisor on the Egalitarianism program

Phone: + 47 55589175
Cell phone:
Visiting address: Department of Social Anthropology,
University of Bergen, Fosswinckelsgt. 6.


Alena has her PhDr. in Czech Language and Literature from Charles university, Prague, Czech rep.

Alena is an advisor at the administration of the Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Bergen. She has worked with various EU initiatives and projects since 1993, apart from Norway also in the UK and Czech rep.

Anna%20Szolucha%20photo kopi

Anna Szolucha

Post doctor / Marie Curie Fellowship

Cell phone:


Project title:

Repower democracy The project contributes to critical enquiry into the possibilities of more democratic futures and their interrelationship with transitions of energy systems. The overarching aim is to repower democracy in Europe, to help its citizens to be actively engaged in democratic processes by taking responsibility for tackling the issues involved in negotiating the future supply of energy as well as the changing nature of democracy.


Mohammad Tareq Hasan

Phd student

Cell phone:


My PhD research intends to investigate the making of the lives of the garment workers of Bangladesh and illuminate social inequalities emerging in this new labor regime. In this regard, I will explore how the trans-national industries have developed and are operating in Bangladesh and how the state of Bangladesh has been responding to its demands. Further, I will investigate how the garment industry creates conditions for social class formation and migration, new notions of work and gender, and what expectations that drive the workers into the garment industry and how do they cope as being part of trans-local social and economic relationships. Besides, my research interest includes how do the workers perceive their rights (individual and as a group) and its relationship with the incidences of labor unrest. Thus, on a theoretical level, I seek to discuss and argue that even though the liberal-democratic state of Bangladesh promoted by globalization advocates basic political, economic, social, cultural rights for everyone and promises equality (at least in the long term), but it actually generates inequality


Barry Morris

Doctor / Visiting affiliate researcher, The University of Newcastle

Cell phone:


Barry Morris is a currently Conjoint Senior Lecturer, Sociology and Anthropology, Newcastle University, Australia and a Honorary Associate, Anthropology, Sydney University, Australia. He is the author of the book, Domesticating Resistance: the Dhan-gadi Aborigines and the Australian State (Berg Publishers) and the edited collections, Race Matters: Indigenous Australians and ‘Our’ Society (eds) Gillian Cowlishaw and Morris, B. (Aboriginal Studies Press) and Expert Knowledge: First World Peoples, Consultancy, and Anthropology, (eds) Morris, B. and Bastin, R. Critical Interventions, volume 4. (Berghahn Books). His latest book is Protests, Land Rights and Riots (Aboriginal Studies Press (2013), Berghahn (2014).


Jadran Mimica

Doctor / Visting affiliate researcher, The University of Sydney

Cell phone: + 61293514112

Photo on 25-08-2015 at 9.20 am #2

Marina Gold

Doctor / Researcher

Cell phone:


Research Topic

The state, Revolution, political anthropology, medical anthropology, migration, urban movements, human rights.


Research Area

Cuba, Australia, Latin America, Europe


Short Bio

Dr Marina Gold has a double major in archaeology and anthropology. She completed her PhD in Anthropology in 2012 at Deakin University. Her areas of expertise are in political and economic anthropology, development studies and Caribbean and Latin American studies. She has taught at the University of Sydney and at Macquarie University. She is currently a research fellow at Bergen University, where she is working on European Research Council sponsored project on Egalitarianism. Her research focuses on human rights discourse, child labour and refugees in Latin America and Europe.


Description of Project:

A central element of most egalitarian struggles, the discourse of human rights is a nebulous shape-shifter, and it can be appropriated in radically different contexts and for diametrically opposed purposes. Human rights seemingly reflect a revival of the democratic project, aiming to provide people with no political power a language for political recognition. However, the discourse of human rights has also served as a tool for domination, exclusion and violence. As “the ideological legitimation for the impetus to dynamics of socio-economic and cultural changes as well as myriad social and political criticisms and protest” (Kapferer 2014, Egalitarianism web page), egalitarian processes are often articulated through the idiom of human rights: gender equality, workers rights, children’s rights, sustainability, political freedom, etc. What is it about the ambiguity of human rights that simultaneously sees the U.S. government and the UN condemning and sanctioning the Cuban government for transgressing political freedom, and the Cuban government wielding a revolution in the name of upholding basic human rights of literacy, numeracy, the right to shelter and food, and an ecologically sustainable existence? In this project I will explore the UN’s discourse of human rights in Latin America and Europe focusing on the issues of refugees and child labor.

Human rights discourse, therefore, becomes an almost indisputable argument through which capitalist corporations occupy the spaces of the receding nation-state in an era of increasing chaos, when North American democratic egalitarian values become essentialised through the universality of human rights, and are presented as the only way. Human rights become part of the ontology of western democracies, relating to the concept of order (the Law) and the constitution of alterity (currently best embodied by Muslim fundamentalists). It is the concern with the freedom of the individual that seems to lie at the center of the UN’s human rights discourse.

In this yearlong project, through archival research and short-term fieldwork in Geneva, I will analyze the UN’s human rights discourse as representative of the Euro-American view of egalitarianism. The convergence of human rights discourse within local and global politics highlights the issues central to the Egalitarianism project: the contextualization and deconstruction of the concept of egalitarianism.


List of Publications


Gold, Marina [forthcoming]. “People and State in Socialist Cuba: Ideas and Practices of Revolution” Palgrave Macmillan. (coming out in August 2015)

Journal Articles

Gold, Marina. 2014. “Healing Practices and Revolution in Socialist Cuba”. Social Analysis 58 (2)

Gold, Marina. 2014. “Peasant, Patriot, Environmentalist: Sustainable Development Discourse in Havana”. Bulletin of Latin American Research 33 (4) 405-418 DOI:10.1111/blar.12175


Book Chapter

Gold, Marina. 2011. “Urban Gardens: Private Property or the Ultimate Socialist Experience?”. In (ed) C. Riobo. Cuban Intersections of Literary and Urban Spaces. New York: State University of New York (SUNY) Press.

Gold, Marina [Forthcoming]. “Capitalist Ventures, Solidarity Networks: The value of property in Socialist Cuba” in Angosto-Ferrández, Luis and Presterudstuen, Geir (Eds). “Anthropologies of value: use and exchange in the comparison of human economies” [Tentative title]. Pluto Press.

Book Reviews

Gold, Marina. 2013. “Trumpets in the mountains: Theater and the politics of national culture in Cuba” [Book Review]. Anthropological Forum. Online edition.

Gold, Marina. 2011. “Being Ethnographic. A Guide to the Theory and Practice of Ethnography” [Book Review]. Oceania 81(2). DOI: 10.1002/j.1834- 4461.2011.tb00104.x

Gold, Marina. 2008. “Culture in Translation: The Anthropological Legacy of R. H. Mathews [Book Review]”. The Australian Journal of Anthropology 19 (3):360.

Gold, Marina. 2007. “Sharing Spaces and Non-Indigenous Responses to Store, Country and Rights [Book Review]”. Australian Aboriginal Studies 1:155-156.


Conference and Seminar Papers

Gold, Marina 2015. “The ordering power of Revolution: state ideology in Cuba in an age of change”. UCL Americas Research Network. 30 April-1 May. London.

Gold, Marina 2014. “Limits of Revolution: Migration discourse in Cuba”. SURCLA (Sydney University Research Community for Latin America). 28th October. University of Sydney.

Gold, Marina 2014. “Revolution as the Order of Things”. Disorder: The Annual University of Sydney Anthropology Symposium. 4-5 November.

Gold, Marina 2014. “Entrepreneurial Revolutionaries. Private Property in Cuba since the 1990s”. Australian Anthropological Society and Association of Social Anthropologists of Aotearoa New Zealand. Queenstown, New Zealand 10-13 November.

Gold, Marina 2014. “From Olive Green to Adidas Blue. State and Revolution in Cuba”. University of Sydney Anthropology Seminar. Sydney, March.

Gold, Marina 2012. “Alternative Medicine, Santería and the Biomedical System in Cuba”. Macquarie University Anthropology Seminar. Sydney. March.

Gold, Marina 2012. “Urban Gardens: Private Property or the Ultimate Socialist Experience?” Australian Anthropological Association, University of Queensland, Brisbane. September

Gold, Marina. 2011. “José Martí and Nature. Sustainable Development in Cuba”. Australian Anthropological Association, University of Western Australia, Perth. July 2011

Gold, Marina. 2011. “Urban Gardens in Havana” Cuba Futures. Bildner Centre for Western Hemisphere Studies. City University New York. New York. 31st March – 2nd April.

Gold, Marina. 2009. “(Trans) National Identity – Blurring the Boundaries of Belonging”. Cuba Research Forum Annual Conference. University of Havana. 2nd – 3rd July.

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George Varghese

Affiliate Researcher, Adjunct Professor Manipal University

Cell phone: + 1 (740) 370-8339


George Varghese K is presently adjunct professor at Manipal Centre for Philosophy and Humanities (MCPH), Manipal University, India. He holds an MPhil from the Department of Social Anthropology, University of Bergen, with a thesis written on the anthropology of gold in Kerala, India. Later he completed his PhD from Melbourne University, Australia, before joining the Manipal University as a faculty. He also holds an MPhil degree in English Literature from the Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. He had also conducted research on the anthropology of Syrian Christians in Kerala and published papers on the church architecture and the writing of family histories. With a strong interdisciplinary bent, he tries to bring in the insights of philosophy in to anthropological analysis. His PhD dissertation is a work on Deleuzian philosophy and the anthropology of gold.

His engagement with Deleuze is from the vantage point of anthropology and using Deleuze to interpret anthropological materials. He is trying to open up a new perspective on the anthropology of gold in Kerala, about which he has already published a book in Malayalam and also many articles. Definitely one of the important focus of his anthropological research is the question of the pauperization of artisans working on gold in Kerala, which on the other hand, tops the list of value-generating objects. Linked up with the complexities of gold as an object and the system of gold trade he is trying to explain the traumas of the artisans from a Deleuzian perspective, which finally fits into the overall objectives of the egalitarianism project. He will be moving into the second phase of this work soon, after completing his present theoretical work on Deleuze, gold and anthropology.

He is also the president of the Deleuze Studies in India Collective (DSIC), which convened the Third International Deleuze Studies in Asia Conference from June 5th to 7th 2015, at Manipal University. Deleuzism provides an important tool for his anthropological analysis and he is presently finishing a book on Deleuze, anthropology and gold for the Edinburgh University Press. He is also co-editing a special volume of the journal Deleuze Studies on India and another book for the Oxford University Press , New Delhi, with Paul Patton , the eminent Deleuze scholar.


Ravi Raman

Doctor / Affiliate researcher, Senior Fellow Nehru Memorial Museum and Library

Cell phone: + 91 9958209920


Former positions; Hallsworth Research Fellow, Department of Social Anthropology, Manchester University (2005-8), Visiting Fellow, CRASSH, Cambridge (2011) and at Oxford (1999).
Relevant publications

2014 Business, Ethnicity, Politics and Imperial Interests, UPASI,Business History Review(Cambridge-Harvard), Spring

2013 Environmental Modernity, Seminar,The Monthly Symposium (637). pp. 33-38

2012 Currents and Eddies: Indian Middle East Migration Processes, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 5, 2: 189-205

2010 Transverse Solidarity: Water, Power and Resistance, Review of Radical Political Economics, 42 (2): 251-68

2009 Asian Development Bank,Policy Conditionalities and Social Democratic Governance: Kerala Model Under Pressure? Review of International Political Economy, 16 (2):284-308

2008 Community-Corporate Interface: Political Anthropological Concerns of Corporate Social Responsibility,Social Analysis, 15 (3) 103-120

2008 Environmental Ethics, Livelihood and Human Rights: Subaltern-Driven Cosmopolitanism?Nature and Culture, 3 (1) 82-97

2005 Corporate Violence, Political Ecology and the Marginalised: Cola War in Plachimada, Economic and Political Weekly, 25.

2004 Muthanga: A Spark of Hope, Social Analysis, Issue 1, Vol 48, 2004

Authored Book

2010/2012/2015 Global Capital and Peripheral Labour: The History and Political Economy of Plantation Workers in India, New York and London: Routledge.

Nominated for the Labour History Book Prize, 2010; figured in the long list of BISA-IPE Book Prize.


Edited Book

2010 Corporate Social Responsibility: Comparative Critiques, Macmillan (with Ronnie D Lipschutz)


2010 Development, Democracy and the State: Critiquing Kerala Model of Development, New York and London: Routledge


Book chapters

 2010 “Strange Bedfellows? Critiquing Corporate Social Responsibility”, in Ravi Raman and RonnieLipschutz, Corporate Social Responsibility: Comparative Critiques, Macmillan, New York and Basingstoke.

2010 ‘In-Migration vs Out-Migration’ in Terry-Ann Jones & Eric Mielants (Ed) Mass Migration in the World-System: Past, Present and Future(Series Editor: Immanuel Wallerstein) Boulder, CO by Paradigm Press, 2010:122-143

2007 Plachimada Resistance: A Postdevelopment Social Movement Metaphor? In Aram Ziai (Ed), Postdevelopment Theory and Practice(Routledge, New York and London: 163-180)

2004 Muthanga: A Spark of Hope in Kapferer, B, ed. State, Sovereignty, War, Berghahn Books, Oxford, 107-24

1999 Labour under Imperial Hegemony: The case of Tea Plantation Labour in South India, 1914-1946, in S. Bhattacharya (ed.), South Indian Economy, New Delhi: Oxford University Press


Sundar Sarrukai

Professor/Affiliate researcher, National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore, India

Phone:+ 91 80 22185105
Cell phone:

Web Page, National Institute of Advanced Studies.


  • August 2016 – Professor in Philosophy, National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore.
  • 2015 – 2016: Professor, Manipal Centre for Philosophy and Humanities, Manipal University, Manipal.
  • 2010 – 2015: Founder-Director, Manipal Centre for Philosophy and Humanities, Manipal University, Manipal.
  • 2006 – 2009: Head, Centre for Philosophy, National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore.
  • 2007 – 2009: Dean, School of Humanities, National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore.
  • 2006 – 2009: Professor, School of Humanities, National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore.
  • 2000 – 2006: Fellow, National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore.
  • 1994 – 2000: Associate Fellow, National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore.
  • 1992 – 1994: Post-doctoral Fellow, Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Madras.
  • 1985 – 1992: Teaching Assistant, Department of Physics, Purdue University.


  • PHISPC Fellowship. September 2003 – November 2004.
  • Fellow, Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Shimla, July 1999 – June 2001.
  • Homi Bhabha Fellow, June 1997 – May 1999.
  • David Ross Fellowship, Purdue University, Summer 1988.
  • Graduate Student Assistantship, Department of Physics, Purdue University, 1985 – 92.
  • Merit Scholarship, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, 1984 – 1985.

Christopher C. Taylor

Doctor / Affiliate researcher

Cell phone:


Christopher C. Taylor is an anthropologist with specialties in symbolic, medical, political, and religious anthropology. He has also done applied anthropological work on STDs and AIDS in Rwanda and Cote d’Ivoire. His fieldwork sites include: rural France, Rwanda, Kenya, and Cote d’Ivoire. He has written extensively on local Rwandan healing and the Rwandan genocide. He has taught social sciences and anthropology at the University of Virginia, the University of Chicago, and the University of Alabama at Birmingham. He retired from teaching in 2009.


BA – Yale, 1968.

Maîtrise ès Lettres en Ethnologie – Université de Paris X (Nanterre), 1979.

Ph.D. – University of Virginia, 1988



Milk, Honey, and Money: Changing Concepts in Rwandan Healing, Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992.

Sacrifice as Terror: the Rwandan Genocide of 1994, Berg Press, Oxford (UK), 1999.

Terreur et Sacrifice: une approche anthropologique du génocide rwandais, (Sacrifice as Terror translated into French by Jean-Francois Bare & Christopher Taylor), Editions Octares, Toulouse, France, 2000.

Articles and Book Chapters

“The Concept of Flow in Rwandan Popular Medicine,” in Social Science and Medicine, vol.27, no. 12, pp.1343-1348, 1988.

same as above, “The Concept of Flow..,” requested by René Collignon for re-publication in Psychopathologie africaine, 1989.

“AIDS and the Pathogenesis of Metaphor,” in Culture and AIDS: the Human Factor pp.55-65, D. Feldman (ed.), New York: Praeger, 1990.

“Condoms and Cosmology: the Fractal Person and Sexual Risk in Rwanda,” in Social Science & Medicine, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1023_1028, 1990.

“The History of Rwanda,” chapter in the Federal Research Division Area Handbook, Rwanda and Burundi, 1990, 28 p.

“Rwandan Society and its Environment,” chapter in the Federal Research Division Area Handbook, Rwanda and Burundi, 1990, 25 p.

“The Harp that Plays by Itself,” in Medical Anthropology, vol. 13, no. 1/2, pp. 99_119, 1991.

“The Harp that Plays by Itself,” chapter in Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Ethnomedicine, M. Nichter (ed.), Gordon & Breach, pp. 127-148, 1992.

“Cosmology and Change in Rwanda,” in Sociétés d’Afrique et de SIDA Newsletter, 1994, 2 p.

The Rwandans,” in Encyclopedia of Cultures and Daily Life, Eastword Publications, 1997, 7p.

“A Gendered Genocide: Tutsi Women and Hutu Extremists in the 1994 Rwanda Genocide,” in Political and Legal Anthropology Review, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 42-54, 1999.

“The Cultural Face of Terror in the Rwandan Genocide of 1994,” Ch. 6 (pp.137-178) in Annihilating Difference: The Anthropology of Genocide, Alex Hinton (ed.), Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

Kings and Chaos in Rwanda. On the Order of Disorder,” Anthropos 98, no. 1, (2003): 41-59

Dual Systems in Rwanda: Have they ever really existed?” Anthropological Theory 4, no.3 (2004): 353-371

The Retreat of the Social: The Rise and Rise of Reductionism – More Power to You, or Should It Be Less?” Social Analysis. 48, no. 3, (2004): 179-187.

Kings or Presidents? : War and the State in Pre- and Post-Genocidal Rwanda,” in State, sovereignty, war : civil violence in emerging global realities, Bruce Kapferer (ed.), Berghahan Books, 2004

Deadly images : King sacrifice, President Habyarimana, and the iconography of pre-genocidal Rwandan political literature,” in Violence, Neil L. Whitehead (ed.) – Santa Fe : School of American research press, pp. 79-105, 2005.

The Dialectics of Hate and Desire : Tutsi Women and Hutu Extremism,” in Genocide, Adam Jones, ed.., Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 283-301, 2008.

The Rwandan genocide: toward an explanation in which history and culture matter,” Ch. 9 (pp. 239-268) in Questioning Collapse: human resilience, ecological vulnerability, and the aftermath of empire, P.A. McAnany and N. Yoffee (eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Molders of Mud: Ethnogenesis and Rwanda’s Twa,” Ethnos, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 183-208, 2011.

Sacrifício Rei, Estado Ruandês e Genicidio,” Caderno, vol. 24, no. 61, pp. 63-80, 2011.

Rwanda’s Gacaca Trials: towards a new nationalism or business as usual,” Ch. 13 (pp. 301-320) in Genocide and Mass Violence, Memory, Symptom, and Recovery, D.E. Hinton and A.L. Hinton, eds., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

“Ihahamuka – PTSD in post-genocidal Rwanda: culture, continuity, and change in Rwandan Therapeutics,” in…., forthcoming.

“Ihahamuka: an Indigensous Medical Condition among Rwandan Genocide Survivors,” in…, forthcoming.

“Le Souffle bloqué: ihahamuka et gacaca au Rwanda,” in …, forthcoming.

Research reports

“Rwanda Baseline Assessment,” AIDSCAP division of Family Health International, Arlington, VA, May 1996, 80 p.

“Réseaux sociaux et sexuels chez les adultes de Daloa,” Sociétés, Santé, et Développement, Université de Bordeaux 2, submitted October 2000, 40 p.

Book Reviews

Review of Parole et sagesse: valeurs sociales dans les proverbes du Rwanda, by P. Crepeau, in Journal of American Folklore, vol. 99, no. 393, July_September, 1986.

Review of Ni père ni mère, Critique de la parenté: le cas makhuwa, by C. Geffray, in the American Anthropologist, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 202-03, 1992.

Review of Power and Performance, by J. Fabian, in Ethnohistory, vol. 39, pp. 238-40, 1992.

Review of Myth, Ritual, and Kingship in Buganda, by Ben Ray in the American Ethnologist, vol. 21, no. 4., pp. 977-78, 1994.

Review of Purity and Exile by Liisa Malkki, American Journal of Sociology, September, 1996.

Review of Histoire d’une famine: Rwanda 1927-1930 crise alimentaire entre tradition et modernité by Anne Cornet, International Journal of African Historical Studies, 1998.

Review of The United Nations and Rwanda 1993-1996 by the United Nations, International Journal of African Historical Studies, 1998.

Review of Cultures of Insecurity by Jutta Weldes, Mark Laffey, Hugh Gusterson, Raymond Duvall, eds., American Ethnologist, 2000.

Review of A People Betrayed: the role of the West in Rwanda’s Genocide by Linda Melvern, Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History, 2001.

Review of Killing Neighbors: Webs of Violence in Rwanda by Lee Ann Fujii, Anthropological Quarterly 84, no. 4 (2011): 1069-1074

Review of Pouvoir et Religion: pour reconcilier l’histoire et l’anthropologie by Luc de Heusch, Anthropological Quarterly 84, no. 2 (2011): 585-590